Q. What is the difference between a periodical, a serial and a journal?

The terms ‘periodical’, ‘serial’ and ‘journal’ are used interchangeably in the Library, usually to mean an academic or scholarly journal.

  • Periodical is a broad term, meaning anything that is published periodically. It could be newspapers, magazines, newsletters or journals.
  • Serial is also a broad term, meaning anything that is published serially, or in a series. It is most often used to mean academic journals.
  • A journal is a publication which comes out on a regular basis and contains articles.

You can see the Peer-Reviewed journals FAQ for information about peer reviewed or refereed journals.


What is Organizational Resilience?

Organizational Resilience

As Bhamra succinctly puts it:

Continuity management is essentially returning a business to ‘business as usual’, and nothing more. Resilience… not only enables organizations to continue with business as usual, but also to learn, progress and flourish… which will likely involve transformation.”

In short, business continuity returns us to where we were before an incident but a resilient organization will evolve and grow from the incident.


What is a Mission?

What is a Mission

A mission typically is something unique the organization does, for example, repairing roads is the responsibility of the Department of Transportation.

On the other hand, a supporting activity is something most organizations do, such as providing IT support.


What is the difference between Board, Council, Committee, Commission and Tribunal in India?



a group of persons having managerial, supervisory, investigatory, or advisory powers.

Example: CBSE, Medical


a group of people elected directly or indirectly who are chosen to make rules, laws, or decisions or to give advice.

Example: Legislative council which is an indirectly or directly elected or nominated members to make rules, laws. Municipal councils or UN Security Council.


a group of people entrusted by a government or other official body with authority to do something.

Example: Election commission of India which constitutional and independent body which consists of four-member who exercise their power to conduct the free and fair election in India.


a body of persons delegated to consider, investigate, take action on, or report on some matters.

Example: Sri Krishna committee which was set up to look after the issues arose and distribution of resource after bifurcation of Andhra Pradesh.


A tribunal, generally, is any person or institution with authority to judge, adjudication, or determine claims or disputes—whether or not it is called a tribunal in its title. For example, an advocate who appears before a court with a single judge could describe that judge as ‘their tribunal. For National Green Tribunal a body specially constituted to solve issues on the environment and reduce its impacts. Water tribunals etc.,

Source: Narasimha Raju, former Development Professional (2016)


Effective CISSP Questions

The legacy Storage Area Network (SAN) storage went out of order and disrupted the ERP system of your company. As the lack of inventory for this legacy storage model, it takes two days to get a new one and recover the system. The contingency plan for this system is activated. Which of the following interim measures is least likely adopted?
A. Implementation of redundant information system functions
B. Recovery of information system functions using alternate equipment
C. Performance of information system functions using manual methods
D. Relocation of information systems and operations to an alternate site

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Independent Establishment


Independent Establishment

For the purpose of this title, “independent establishment” means-

  • (1) an establishment in the executive branch (other than the United States Postal Service or the Postal Regulatory Commission) which is not an Executive department, military department, Government corporation, or part thereof, or part of an independent establishment; and
  • (2) the Government Accountability Office.

Source: Office of the Law Revision Counsel

Independent Agencies

  • Independent agencies are not subject to direct control by the president or the executive branch, unlike executive agencies. The leaders of independent agencies do not serve as part of the president’s Cabinet.
  • To create an independent agency, Congress passes a statute granting an agency the authority to regulate and control a specific area or industry.
  • A commission, board, or body consisting of between five to seven members, on the other hand, typically leads independent agencies. The president appoints the board or commission members subject to the senate’s confirmation.
  • Each member serves for a limited term, which is typically four years, and the members’ terms are staggered in order to prevent the complete turnover of the board all at once.

Source: Justia

Administrative Agencies

There are two principal ways that administrative agencies can be created: executive agencies and legislative agencies. Executive agencies are created by the president, while legislative agencies are established by an act of Congress.

Source: Justia