Data Abstraction vs Encapsulation

It’s common for people to be confused by data abstraction and encapsulation and treat the concept of abstraction as encapsulation or information hiding. That’s not the case. The following definitions come from ISO/IEC/IEEE 24765:2017 Systems and software engineering — Vocabulary.

Data Abstraction

  1. process of extracting the essential characteristics of data by defining data types and their associated functional characteristics and disregarding representation details
  2. result of the process in (1)


  1. software development technique that consists of isolating a system function or a set of data and operations on those data within a module and providing precise specifications for the module
  2. concept that access to the names, meanings, and values of the responsibilities of a class is entirely separated from access to their realization [IEEE 1320.2-1998 (R2004) IEEE Standard for Conceptual Modeling Language Syntax and Semantics for IDEF1X97 (IDEFobject), 3.1.54]
  3. the idea that a module has an outside that is distinct from its inside, that it has an external interface and an internal implementation

Information Hiding

  1. software development technique in which each module’s interfaces reveal as little as possible about the module’s inner workings and other modules are prevented from using information about the module that is not in the module’s interface specification
  2. containment of a design or implementation decision in a single module so that the decision is hidden from other modules

NIST Recommendation for Key Management

NIST Recommendation for Key Management
NIST Recommendation for Key Management (Source: BlueKrypt)

BlueKrypt provides a fantastic summary of recommendations for Key Management from various authorities. The user interface is terrific as well! Great job!

  • Lenstra and Verheul Equations (2000)
  • Lenstra Updated Equations (2004)
  • ECRYPT-CSA Recommendations (2018)
  • NIST Recommendations (2020)
  • ANSSI Recommendations (2014)
  • NSA CNSA Suite (2016)
  • Network Working Group RFC3766 (2004)
  • BSI Recommendations (2020)

ClickOnce and Docker Code Signing Problems

Strongly-named Assembly Required
Strongly-named Assembly Required

ClickOnce and Strongly-named Assembly

I build a multi-target .NET project, DomainModel, that supports .NET framework and .NET Core and publish the Windows Form Application as the client using Microsoft ClickOnce requiring the shared DomainModel be strongly-named. However, it doesn’t make sense on a docker node in Azure.

Publish Error on Azure Docker Node

Docker command failed with exit code 1.
#15 ERROR: executor failed running [/bin/sh -c dotnet build "Services.csproj" -c Release -o /app/build]: exit code: 1
#15 64.73 /usr/share/dotnet/sdk/5.0.302/Microsoft.Common.CurrentVersion.targets(3325,5): error : PFX signing not supported on .NET Core [/src/DomainModel/DomainModel.csproj]
#15 64.76 Build FAILED.


I have to manually check the “Sign the assembly” option when publishing the Windows Form application and uncheck it when publishing services to Azure docker nodes.


Effective CISSP Questions

As a development organization, your company initiated a security champion program based on the Software Assurance Maturity Model (SAMM) to increase the effectiveness and efficiency of application security and compliance and to strengthen the relationship between various teams and Information Security. Which of the following is the best arrange for the security champion? (Wentz QOTD)
A. Establish a security champion position reporting to CEO directly
B. Establish a security champion position reporting to CISO directly
C. Assign a developer in each project to serve as the security champion role
D. Assign a functional manager with position power to serve as the security champion role

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Effective CISSP Questions

As a risk management professional, you are evaluating the organizational risk management program using the risk maturity model. Which of the following is incorrect? (Wentz QOTD)
A. The term “maturity” refers to how well the risk management processes are performed.
B. A maturity model shall define five maturity levels.
C. Optimizing or optimized typically refers to the level of the best maturity.
D. Risk management in certain contexts can be a temporary endeavor.

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Effective CISSP Questions

As a risk management professional, you are calculating annualized loss expectancy based on input parameters such as asset value, exposure factor, single loss expectancy, and the annual rate of occurrence. Which of the following is the end purpose? (Wentz QOTD)
A. Qualitative risk analysis
B. Quantitative risk analysis
C. Risk prioritization
D. Risk evaluation

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