Signal, Data, and Modulation

Modulation Schemes (Credit: Dr. Jan Noordhof)
Modulation Schemes

Signal, as a waveform, is the carrier of data. By alternating amplitude, frequency, phase, or any combination of them, the modulation process synthesizes the signal (as the carrier wave) and the data (as an input wave) and generates the modulated result. Modulation can be analog or digital.

Digital Modulation

Data Element vs Signal Element
Data Element vs Signal Element (Credit:

There are many types of digital modulation techniques, for example:

  • ASK – Amplitude Shift Keying
  • FSK – Frequency Shift Keying
  • PSK – Phase Shift Keying has more.


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