You are implementing Wi-Fi networks. Which of the following is the last step when a station connects to the access point? (Wentz QOTD)
A. Association Request
B. 4-Way Handshake
C. Probe Request
D. Authentication Request
Kindly be reminded that the suggested answer is for your reference only. It doesn’t matter whether you have the right or wrong answer. What really matters is your reasoning process and justifications.
My suggested answer is B. 4-Way Handshake.
Wentz’s book, The Effective CISSP: Security and Risk Management, helps CISSP and CISM aspirants build a solid conceptual security model. It is a tutorial for information security and a supplement to the official study guides for the CISSP and CISM exams and an informative reference for security professionals.
Discovery: Beaconing and Probing
An access point (AP) connects a specific set of wireless network devices (stations or STA) and shapes a basic service set (BSS). Multiple basic service sets become an extended service set (ESS). An AP periodically broadcasts beacon frames that contain the service set identifier (SSID) so that stations can broadcast probe requests to the AP.
An AP typically supports authentication mechanisms such as Open System Authentication (OSA), Pre-Shared Key or PSK (Personal Profile), and 802.1X or EAPoL (Enterprise Profile).
The legacy WEP supports OSA and PSK, while WPA, WPA2, and WPA3 support all of them. However, OSA is a null authentication algorithm where any station can be authenticated and associated with the AP.
A station (STA) can associate with the AP and establish an authenticated and encrypted channel. It is completed by exchanging association messages that contain information such as WPA/RSN version, cipher suites for unicast and multicast, Auth Key Management (AKM) suite, etc.
If the AP uses 802.1X (or 802.11i authentication), EAP authentication is conducted after the association process.
Once the association is completed, a 4-way handshake is conducted, which utilizes an exchange of four EAPOL-Key frames.
WPA3 SAE/Dragonfly Handshake
In 2018, the 4-Way Handshake was found vulnerable to the “KRACK attack,” which can be mitigated by WPA3 Simultaneous Authentication of Equals (SAE, aka Dragonfly) under the Personal Profile.
- WPA3 and DragonFly (SAE)
- CWSP -RSN Information Element
- WN Blog 026 – 802.1x & EAP
- 802.1X Authentication and 4-Way Handshake for WiFi
- WEP vs. WPA vs. WPA2 vs. WPA3
- Understanding IEEE* 802.11 Authentication and Association
- How WiFi Connection Works
- Station Authentication and Association
- Securing Your Network with the 4-Way Handshake
- WPA3 Dragonfly Handshake
- Wi-Fi Alliance® Wi-Fi® Security Roadmap and WPA3™ Updates
- Wi-Fi Protected Access
- Discover Wi-Fi Security
- Development of SP 800-38 Series for Block Cipher Modes
- Block cipher mode of operation
- ISO/IEC 10116:2017, Information technology — Security techniques — Modes of operation for an n-bit block cipher
- FIPS 81: DES MODES OF OPERATION
- Wireshark SampleCaptures
您正在實施 Wi-Fi 網絡。 在工作站向接入點進行身份驗證之前，以下哪項最不可能發生？ (Wentz QOTD)
A. 關聯請求 (Association Request)
B. 四段交握 (4-Way Handshake)
C. 探測請求 (Probe Request)
D. 認證請求 (Authentication Request)