Effective CISSP Questions

Which of the following software development approaches or practices doesn’t emphasizes engaging customers or end-users in the development process as early as possible?
A. Prototyping
B. Extreme Programming (XP)
C. Integrated Product Team (IPT)
D. Joint Application Development

Kindly be reminded that the suggested answer is for your reference only. It doesn’t matter whether you have the right or wrong answer. What really matters is your reasoning process and justifications.

My suggested answer is A. Prototyping.

All the options, Prototyping, Extreme Programming (XP), Integrated Product Team (IPT), and Joint Application Development, engage customers or end-users in the development process. However, prototyping does so as late as in the design or development phase and emphasizes validating the prototype. Prototyping typically won’t happen at the planning or analysis phase. In contrast, other approaches emphasize engaging customers or end-users across the software development life cycle.


Software prototyping

The purpose of a prototype is to allow users of the software to evaluate developers’ proposals for the design of the eventual product by actually trying them out, rather than having to interpret and evaluate the design based on descriptions.

Source: Wikipedia

Whole Time

Many people’s perspectives must come into play for effective software development to occur. The XP practice Whole Team suggests that a variety of people work together in interlinking ways to make a project more effective. They have to work together as a group for each to be successful. Everyone on an XP team has linked his future in the realm of work. XP started out prescribing effective ways for programmers to behave on a project. Here are the beginnings of prescriptions for each member of an XP team.

Source: Extreme Programming Explained: Embrace Change, Second Edition

A cross functional group of people with the necessary roles for a product form a single team. This means people with a need as well as all the people who play some part in satisfying that need all work together on a daily basis to accomplish a specific outcome.

Source: Agile Alliance

XP Practices

Joint Application Development

Joint application design (JAD) is a process used in the life cycle area of the dynamic systems development method (DSDM) to collect business requirements while developing new information systems for a company. “The JAD process also includes approaches for enhancing user participation, expediting development, and improving the quality of specifications.” It consists of a workshop where “knowledge workers and IT specialists meet, sometimes for several days, to define and review the business requirements for the system.” The attendees include high level management officials who will ensure the product provides the needed reports and information at the end. This acts as “a management process which allows Corporate Information Services (IS) departments to work more effectively with users in a shorter time frame”.

Source: Wikipedia

Integrated Product Team (IPT)

Integrated Product Team (IPT) is introduced to the U.S. DoD in 1995 as part of the major acquisition reforms. The following is an excerpt from DoD Integrated Product and Process Development Handbook:

An Integrated Product Team (IPT) is a multidisciplinary group of people who are collectively responsible for delivering a defined product or process. The IPT is composed of people who plan, execute, and implement life-cycle decisions for the system being acquired. It includes empowered representatives (stakeholders) from all of the functional areas involved with the product—all who have a stake in the success of the program, such as design, manufacturing, test and evaluation (T&E), and logistics personnel, and, especially, the customer. Because the activities relative to a system’s acquisition change and evolve over its life cycle, the roles of various IPTs and IPT members evolve. When the team is dealing with an area that requires a specific expertise, the role of the member with that expertise will predominate; however, other team members’ input should be integrated into the overall life-cycle design of the product. Some teams may assemble to address a specific problem and then become inactive or even disband after accomplishing their tasks. The Boeing 777 experience supported the continuation of IPTs throughout the entire program acquisition. Having IPT members with experience on the program was a primary factor in providing continuity, reducing the program’s overall schedule, and requiring minimal program training.



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A. 原型製作 (Prototyping)
B. 極限編程 (XP)
C. 集成產品團隊 (IPT)
D. 聯合應用開發 (JAD)


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