Effective CISSP Questions

In the context of software, the runtime is an umbrella term that may refer to the runtime environment, runtime library, or the runtime phase in the program lifecycle. Which of the following is least related to the concept of runtime?
A. A web browser
B. A software component packaged in a DLL file
C. A cryptographic library linked by a linker
D. A process that hosts other dynamic components

Kindly be reminded that the suggested answer is for your reference only. It doesn’t matter whether you have the right or wrong answer. What really matters is your reasoning process and justifications.

My suggested answer is C. A cryptographic library linked by a linker. (or D. A process that hosts processes)

Linking a cryptographic library is a development task conducted by developers, not an activity conducted by the process at the runtime phase. Libraries linked to the main program are static components, not dynamic ones loaded at the runtime phase.

The term, runtime, may refer to the period (runtime phase) when a program is loaded into an execution environment (runtime environment) where the dependent software components (runtime libraries) can be loaded dynamically.

  • The web browser is the runtime environment of JavaScript.
  • A DLL, as a runtime software component, can be dynamically loaded into the main process at runtime.
  • Rigorously, the statement, a process that “hosts” other processes, is inappropriate. A host process provides services to hosted components or employs the services provided by the components. It’s more appropriate to say “a process that hosts other dynamic components” to emphasize the idea of the runtime environment. The question has been revised to “a process that hosts other dynamic components.”


A program is a persisted set of instructions that can be executed to perform a specific task.

  • A program is written by a programmer in a programming language.
  • A program loaded into the memory for execution by the operating system is called a process.
  • The collection of programs, their dependent components, and data are generally referred to as software. Software developed to solve business problems is called an application.
  • There are two types of programs: script and executable.


A program written in plain text, a human-readable form is called source code. If an interpreter can execute the source code, it is also known as a script.


Some source code, aka subject code, needs to be translated into binary object code, usually machine code by a compiler. A linker can assemble multiple units of object code (the object code of the main program, its dependent software libraries, and other resources) into an executable that can be loaded into memory by the operating system and executed by the processor.

Types of Codes



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在軟體的環境中,執行時期(runtime)是一個統稱,可以是指運行時期的環境,運行時期的程式庫或程式生命週期中的執行階段。 以下哪項與執行時期(runtime)的概念關係最不相關?
A. 網頁瀏覽器
B. 封裝在DLL檔案中的軟體組件
C. 通過鏈接器(linker)鏈接的加密函式庫
D. 承載(host)其它行程(process)的行程

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