Your company sells toys around the world. You are developing an EC system supported by an RDBMS and write the following SQL code to create a sales order:
01 Begin Transaction
02 Insert Orders(Id, CustomerId, OrderDate) Values(1, 1, ‘2020/08/15’);
03 Insert OrderItems(Id, OrderId, ProductId, Quantity, Price) Values(1, 1, 1, 1, 9.9);
04 Commit Transaction
Which of the following is the language of the SQL code? (Source: Wentz QOTD)
A. Data Definition Language (DDL)
B. Data Query Language (DQL)
C. Data Manipulation Language (DML)
D. Data Control Language (DCL)
Kindly be reminded that the suggested answer is for your reference only. It doesn’t matter whether you have the right or wrong answer. What really matters is your reasoning process and justifications.
My suggested answer is C. Data Manipulation Language (DML).
The transaction is inserting records into two tables: Orders and OrderItems, so the language of the SQL code is Data Manipulation Language (DML).
SQL (“sequel”; Structured Query Language) is a domain-specific language used in programming and designed for managing data held in a relational database management system (RDBMS), or for stream processing in a relational data stream management system (RDSMS). It is particularly useful in handling structured data, i.e. data incorporating relations among entities and variables.
Originally based upon relational algebra and tuple relational calculus, SQL consists of many types of statements, which may be informally classed as sublanguages, commonly:
- a data query language (DQL),
- a data definition language (DDL),
- a data control language (DCL), and
- a data manipulation language (DML).
The scope of SQL includes data query, data manipulation (insert, update and delete), data definition (schema creation and modification), and data access control. Although SQL is essentially a declarative language (4GL), it also includes procedural elements.
SQL was one of the first commercial languages to utilize Edgar F. Codd’s relational model. The model was described in his influential 1970 paper, “A Relational Model of Data for Large Shared Data Banks”. Despite not entirely adhering to the relational model as described by Codd, it became the most widely used database language.
SQL became a standard of the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) in 1986, and of the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) in 1987. Since then the standard has been revised to include a larger set of features. Despite the existence of standards, most SQL code requires at least some changes before being ported to different database systems.
Insert Orders(Id, CustomerId, OrderDate) Values(1, 1, ‘2020/08/15’);
Insert OrderItems(Id, OrderId, ProductId, Quantity, Price) Values(1, 1, 1, 1, 9.9);
以下哪一項是這段SQL代碼的語言？ （來源：Wentz QOTD）
A. 資料定義語言, Data Definition Language (DDL)
B. 資料查詢語言, Data Query Language (DQL)
C. 資料操作語言, Data Manipulation Language (DML)
D. 資料控制語言, Data Control Language (DCL)
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