Confusion and Diffusion

Confusion and Diffusion

Confusion and Diffusion

In cryptography, confusion and diffusion are two properties of the operation of a secure cipher identified by Claude Shannon in his 1945 classified report A Mathematical Theory of Cryptography. These properties, when present, work to thwart the application of statistics and other methods of cryptanalysis.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Confusion_and_diffusion

Product Cipher

In cryptography, a product cipher combines two or more transformations in a manner intending that the resulting cipher is more secure than the individual components to make it resistant to cryptanalysis. The product cipher combines a sequence of simple transformations such as substitution (S-box), permutation (P-box), and modular arithmetic. The concept of product ciphers is due to Claude Shannon, who presented the idea in his foundational paper, Communication Theory of Secrecy Systems.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Product_cipher

Avalanche Effect

In the case of high-quality block ciphers, such a small change in either the key or the plaintext should cause a drastic change in the ciphertext.

The actual term was first used by Horst Feistel, although the concept dates back to at least Shannon’s diffusion.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Avalanche_effect

 

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