PBA Tools and Techniques

Example Hierarchy from Goals to Business Cases

  • Goals and Objectives
    • Corporate strategies translate goals identified in business plans into actionable plans and objectives.
    • Goals are typically broad-based and may span one or more years. (organization or strategy level, long-term)
    • Objectives, on the other hand, are used to enable goals; these are more specific and tend to be of shorter term than goals, often with duration of 1 year or less. (project or tactical level, short-team/less than 1 year)
    • Objectives describe business value; requirements describe how to achieve it.
  • Problem Analysis
    • the first step of problem analysis is to clarify the need by finding the root cause.
    • the second step is describing the problem or situation so everyone in the organization sees the need in the same way.
    • fishbone & five why
    • Situation Statement
      • a clear, agreed-upon business need is the foundation of the entire project.
      • creating a situation statement is a way to get consensus on the business need.
  • Market Analysis
  • Competitive Analysis
  • Benchmarking
  • Job Analysis
    • used to identity the job requirements and competencies required to perform effectively in a specific job or role
  • Decomposition Model (aka decomposition diagram)
    • Business Analysis: used to identify business analysis tasks, activities, and deliverables by detailing out the business analysis work.
    • Stakeholder Analysis: used to analyze the organization with the goal of discovering stakeholder groups.
    • IT Projects: to break down solutions into solution components to further understand their features.
  • Solution Evaluation Metrics and Acceptance Criteria
    • Business goals and objectives
    • Key Performance Indicators
      • Customer Metrics
      • Sales and Marketing Metrics
      • Operational Metrics
      • Functionality
  • Measurable Acceptance Criteria
    • nonfunctional requirements
    • service-level agreement
  • Evaluation Techniques
    • Surveys and focus group
    • Results from exploratory testing and user acceptance testing
    • Results from day-in-the-life (DITL) testing
    • Results from integration testing
    • Expected vs actual results for functionality
    • Expected vs actual results for nonfunctionality requirements
    • Outcome measurements and financial calculation of benefits


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