Logic and Philosophy

  • argument (論述)
    • an argument is a series of statements typically used to persuade someone of something or to present reasons for accepting a conclusion.
    • In logic, an argument requires a set of (at least) two declarative sentences (or “propositions“) known as the premises along with another declarative sentence (or “proposition”) known as the conclusion.
    • 典型的邏輯論述(三段論):
      • 世界上只有一個中國 (premise)
      • 台灣是中國的一部份 (premise)
      • 中華人民共和國政府是中國的唯一合法政府 (conclusion)
  • statement (敘述/主張)
    • In logic, a statement is either (a) a meaningful declarative sentence that is either true or false,
    • or (b) that which a true or false declarative sentence asserts
  • proposition (命題/主張)
    • It is used to refer to some or all of the following: the primary bearers of truth-value, the objects of belief and other “propositional attitudes” (i.e., what is believed, doubted, etc.), the referents of that-clauses and the meanings of declarative sentences.
    • Propositions are the sharable objects of attitudes and the primary bearers of truth and falsity.
  • premise (前提)
    • A premise is a statement that an argument claims will induce or justify a conclusion.
    • In other words: a premise is an assumption that something is true.  
  • condition (條件)
    • the Cambridge Dictionary of Philosophy defines ‘condition’ in an important sense not explained above: a condition is a state of affairs, “way things are” or situation—most commonly referred to by a nominalization of a sentence.
  • state of affairs
    • In philosophy, a state of affairs, also known as a situation, is a way the actual world must be in order to make some given proposition about the actual world true; in other words, a state of affairs (situation) is a truth-maker, whereas a proposition is a truth-bearer. Whereas states of affairs (situations) either obtain or fail-to-obtain, propositions are either true or false.
  • sentence
    • declarative sentence or declaration (陳述句)
    • interrogative sentence or question (疑問句)
    • exclamatory sentence or exclamation (驚歎句)
    • imperative sentence or command (祈使句)
  • Necessity and sufficiency

Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in:

WordPress.com Logo

You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Log Out /  Change )

Google photo

You are commenting using your Google account. Log Out /  Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out /  Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out /  Change )

Connecting to %s

This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. Learn how your comment data is processed.